Book Review – Minority Governance in and Beyond Europe


Malloy, Tove H. and Joseph Marko (eds.), Minority Governance in and Beyond Europe. Celebrating 10 Years of the European Yearbook of Minority Issues. Leiden and Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 2014, 222 pp. Reviewed by William McKinney, European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI). January 2015

This collection of articles is dedicated to the celebrating of the publication of ten volumes of the European Yearbook of Minority Issues (in the following: Yearbook) since the early 2000s. With the publication of this relatively slim, affordable edition, the co-editors have confirmed that they remain the foremost commentators in the field of minority issues. This is especially true in view of the fact that the co-editors had the unenviable task of selecting 10 articles from upwards of 250 expert academic articles that had been published in the Yearbook over the last years. The co-editors succeeded in selecting articles that taken as a whole are capable of increasing the reader’s understanding of how best to advance the minority protection regime in Europe. The contributions offered here deal with such cross-cutting themes as the theory of power-sharing in relation to ethnic conflict; the issue of ‘old’ and ‘new’ minorities; political participation of minorities; the development of language rights; and justification of minority protection, just to mention several examples.

The first Yearbook was published in 2003. In my view, the keys to the successful launch were first, that ECMI was able to find EURAC as a fully competent partner for this ambitious publishing venture.  The second requirement was that both ECMI and EURAC shared the vision of what the Yearbook should be, namely, a critical and timely review of contemporary developments of minority-majority relations in Europe, combining analysis, commentary and documentation in relation to conflict management, international legal developments and domestic legislation affecting minorities in Europe. The third key was that both ECMI and EURAC were willing to commit extensive amounts of time and resources towards implementation of the Yearbook. ECMI and EURAC were also able to find excellent, expert editorial staff for the hard work involved here.

This collection also includes a useful index, which is unfortunately missing in the Yearbooks published up to now.

Posted in Academia, Book Reviews, Documentation, Library Flensburg, Relevant for Flensburg only, Research, Action & Documentation | Tagged , , , , , , , ,

OSCE’s højkommissær møder mindretalsrepræsentanter

udJrnZsC_400x400FLENSBORG 21. januar 2015 – I forbindelse med sit besøg hos ECMI har Astrid Thors, OSCE ‘ s Højkommissær vedrørende nationale mindretal (HCNM) også mødt repræsentanter fra mindretallene i den dansk-tyske region.

I fokus stod mindretallenes aktuelle udfordringer i Europa. Sydslesvigsk Forening blev repræsenteret af generalsekretæren Jens A. Christiansen og formanden Jon Hardon Hansen.  ”Det var en fantastisk mulighed for os at møde Højkommissæren. Det er jo altid godt, hvis mindretalsrepræsentanter kan være med i aktuelle diskussioner og bidrage med deres viden og erfaring ud af det virkelige liv. Desuden betegner vi os selv jo som brobyggere mellem fler- og mindretallene”, forklarer Jens A. Christiansen.

Til stede var også Bahne Bahnsen, formand af den frisiske forening Friisk Foriining og Frank Nickelsen, formand af frisernes råd. Det tyske mindretal blev repræsenteret af formand Hinrich Jürgensen und Uwe Jessen, BDNs (Bund Deutscher Nordschleswiger) generalsekretær. ”At møde Højkommissæren idag i Flensborg var for os en storslået mulighed for at fortælle omkring vores best-practice-eksempler her fra det dansk-tyske grænseland. Vores gode samarbejde og projekter vi laver sammen med de andre mindretal, kunne da være interessante for andre grænseområder og mindretal og fungere som et slags forbillede. Det ville vi gerne fortælle Højkommissæren.

Desuden deltog Matthäus Weiss, formanden af sinti og roma organisationen i Slesvig-Holsten og hans kone Anna, samt Hans Heinrich Hansen (præsident FUEN) og Dieter Küssner (FUEN). Fra politisk side deltog Martin Lorenzen (SSW) og Carsten Leth Schmidt (SP)ECMI HCNM meets minority reps 20150121

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Hohe Kommissarin trifft Minderheitenvertreter

udJrnZsC_400x400Flensburg, 21. Januar 2015. In Verbindung mit ihrem Besuch bei ECMI hat Astrid Thors, Hohe Kommissarin bezüglich nationaler Minderheiten (HKNM) der OSZE, auch ein Gespräch mit Vertretern der Minderheiten in der deutsch-dänischen Region geführt.

Dabei standen Fragen zu den aktuellen Herausforderungen der Minderheiten in Europa im Vordergrund. Der dänische Kulturverein Sydslesvigsk Forening wurde durch Generalsekretär Jens A. Christiansen und dem Vorsitzenden Jon Hardon Hansen vertreten. „Es war eine großartige Möglichkeit für uns, die Hohe Kommissarin zu treffen. Es ist immer gut, wenn auch Vertreter der Minderheiten die Möglichkeit bekommen, bei aktuellen Diskussionen dabei zu sein und aus der Praxis zu erzählen. Außerdem sehen wir uns ja auch als Brückenbauer zwischen Mehr- und Minderheiten“, erklärt Jens A. Christiansen (SSF).

Mit dabei waren auch Bahne Bahnsen, Vorsitzender des friesischen Vereins Friisk Foriining, und Frank Nickelsen, Geschäftsführer des Friesenrates. Die deutsche Minderheit vertraten der Hauptvorsitzende Hinrich Jürgensen und Uwe Jessen, BDN (Bund Deutscher Nordschleswiger). „Die Hohe Kommissarin hier in Flensburg zu treffen, war für uns ein fantastische Möglichkeit, von unseren Best-Practice-Beispielen hier in der deutsch-dänischen Grenzregion zu berichten. Unsere gute Zusammenarbeit und die Projekte die wir gemeinsam mit den anderen Minderheiten initiieren, können doch auch für andere Grenzgebiete und Minderheiten ein Vorbild sein. Das wollten wir der Hohen Kommissarin mit auf den Weg geben,“ sagt Hinrich Jürgensen (BDN).

Außerdem mit dabei Matthäus Weiss Vorsitzender der Sinti und Roma (Schleswig-Holstein) und seine Frau Anna, sowie Hans Heinrich Hansen (Präsident FUEN) und Dieter Küssner (FUEN). Von politischer Seite waren Martin Lorenzen (SSW) und Carsten Leth Schmidt (SP) beteiligt.

ECMI HCNM meets minority reps 20150121

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OSCE High Commissioner Thors visits ECMI headquarters

During her first visit to ECMI, OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) Astrid Thors had the opportunity to learn about the organization’s latest policy research, projects and field work. In addition, High Commissioner Thors met with minority representatives in the Danish-German region keen on discussing minority-related issues.

“Meeting the High Commissioner here in Flensburg was a fantastic occasion to report on our activities in the German-Danish border region,” said Hinrich Jürgensen, Chairman of the German Association of North Schleswig, “Our good working relationships and projects initiated together with other minorities can be a model for other border regions and minorities.”

Through theory and practice, the ECMI’s research and analyses aims to provide workable policy frameworks. “We see the ECMI as a bridge builder between majorities and minorities,” said Jens Christiansen, General Secretary of the Danish Cultural Association of South Schleswig.

Other minority representatives present included:

OSCE HCNM meets minority representatves at ECMI headquarters

Back row (left to right): Hinrich Jürgensen, Uwe Jessen, Frank Nickelsen, Hans Heinrich Hansen, Martin Lorenzen and Carsten Leth Schmidt / Front row (left to right): Jon Hardon Hansen, Dieter Paul Küssner, HC Astrid Thors, Matthäus Weiss and Jens A. Christiansen



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ECMI Library Acquisitions – January 2015

ECMI PublicationsAs of January 2015, one can also find the following titles in the European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI) Library in Flensburg.

  • Bair, Johann, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its (First) Optional Protocol. A Short Commentary Based on Views, General Comments and Concluding Observations by the Human Rights Committee. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, and Bern: Peter Lang, 2005, 212 pp.
    Appetizer and further data.
  • Barten, Ulrike, Minorities, Minority Rights and Internal Self-Determination. Heidelberg, New York and Dordrecht: Springer, 2014, 295 pp.
    Appetizer and further data.
  • Conte, Alex, and Richard Burchill, Defining Civil and Political Rights. The Jurisprudence of the United Nations Human Rights Committee.  – 2nd ed. Farnham and Burlington: Ashgate, 2009, 359 pp.
    Appetizer and further data.
  • Ghazaryan, Nariné, The European Neighbourhood Policy and the Democratic Values of the EU. A Legal Analysis. Oxford and Portland: Hart Publishing, 2014, 208
    Appetizer and further data.

Get the complete acquisitions list for January 2015.

The ECMI Library is an independent collection of books, journals and grey literature of more than 3,000 items covering many aspects of minority issues.

The highly specialized collection offers public access to a variety of materials in more than twenty languages on inter-ethnic relations, language and cultural issues and ethnic conflict in Europe.

The Library is especially strong in the area of minority protection with regards to international law. It also includes a useful reference section and a considerable number ofpublished and unpublished reports dealing with the subjects mentioned above.

In addition to this, the ECMI Library is unique in that it includes an ever-growing number of annual reports of Ombudsman offices around the world, which provide insight into the human rights situation in many countries.

Current periodical and newspaper subscriptions reflect the multidisciplinary nature of ECMI research.

Reference services are provided both in-house and for the general public. The ECMI Library is physically at Schiffbrücke 12 in Flensburg, Germany and online via the
ECMI website.

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Hohe Kommissarin bezüglich nationaler Minderheiten besucht ECMI

Astrid Thors High Commissioner

Astrid Thors, Hohe Kommissarin bezüglich nationaler Minderheiten (HKNM) der Organisation für Sicherheit und Zusammenarbeit in Europa (OSZE) und ihre Delegation besuchen zum ersten Mal ECMI in Flensburg.

Auf der Tagesordnung am Dienstag und Mittwoch, 20. und 21. Januar, stehen u.a. Gespräche mit Jürgen Kühl, Vorstandsvorsitzender ECMI, und den Wissenschaftlern des Instituts. Dabei stehen Fragen zu den aktuellen Herausforderungen der Minderheiten in Europa im Vordergrund. Darüber hinaus wird Astrid Thors auch Vertreter der Minderheiten aus der deutsch-dänischen Region treffen.

“ECMI pflegt eine langjährige Beziehung zu dem HKNM-Büro,” sagt ECMI Direktorin Tove Malloy, “der Besuch der Hohen Kommissarin Astrid Thors ist eine großartige Möglichkeit für ECMI, politische Forschungsergebnisse zu präsentieren, unser Wissen über die nationalen Minderheiten zu teilen und zu ermitteln, in welchen Bereichen wir auch zukünftig kooperieren.“

Der Hohe Kommissar ist das wichtigste Organ für den Schutz von Minderheiten der OSZE. Dieser steht aber nicht im Dienste nationaler Minderheiten. Die englische Bezeichnung „High Commissioner on National Minorities“ und nicht „for national Minorities“ verdeutlicht das. Zu seinen Aufgaben gehören u.a. Krisenmanagement und Spannungen in Verbindung mit nationalen Minderheiten abzubauen.

Weitere Informationen zum HKNM auf Englisch unter

Andrea Young
Pressesprecherin international
Büro: +49 461 14149 12
Mobil: +45 31667065

Angela Jensen
Regionale Kommunikations- und Presseberaterin
Büro: +49 461 14149-0
Mobil: +49 151 17217086


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OSCE’s højkommissær vedrørende nationale mindretal kommer på besøg hos ECMI

Astrid Thors High Commissioner

Astrid Thors, OSCE‘s (Organisationen for Sikkerhed og Samarbejde i Europa) højkommissær vedrørende nationale mindretal (High Commissioner on national minorities, HCNM) og hendes delegation besøger for første gang ECMI i Flensborg.

På tirsdag og onsdag, 20. og 21. Januar, står bl.a. samtaler med Jürgen Kühl, formand for ECMIs executive board, og instituttets forskere på dagsordenen. I fokus står mindretallenes aktuelle udfordringer i Europa. Desuden møder Astrid Thors også repræsentanter fra mindretallene i den dansk-tyske region.

“ECMI har en mangeårig relation til HCNMs sekretariat“, siger ECMIs direktør Tove Malloy, “ besøget af højkommissæren Astrid Thors er en storslået mulighed for ECMI, at præsentere forskningsresultater på politisk niveau, dele vores viden omkring nationale mindretal og finde ud af, på hvilke områder vi også i fremtiden kan samarbejde.“

Højkommissæren er det vigtigste organ for OSCE i forbindelse med beskyttelsen af mindretal og deres rettigheder. Højkommissæren har til opgave at engagere sig i en dialog med OSCEs medlemslande vedrørende mindretalsproblemer.

Yderlige informationer på engelsk:

Andrea Young
Kommunikations- og pressemedarbejder (international)
Kontor: +49 461 14149 12
Mobil: +45 31667065

Angela Jensen
Kommunikationskonsulent (regional)
Kontor: +49 461 14149-0
Mobil: +49 151 17217086

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ECMI welcomes OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities in Flensburg

Astrid Thors/HCNM

FLENSBURG 16 January 2015 – On her first visit to ECMI headquarters, OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) Astrid Thors and her delegation will meet with ECMI Chairman Jørgen Kühl and staff on 20 and 21 January to discuss the latest challenges on minority issues in Europe.

“The ECMI maintains a longstanding relationship with the HCNM’s office,” said ECMI Director Tove Malloy, “High Commissioner Thors’ upcoming visit is an opportunity for ECMI to showcase policy research, share knowledge on minority issues and identify areas to ensure continued cooperation.”

The mandate of the HCNM as “an instrument of conflict prevention at the earliest possible stage” involves containing and de-escalating tensions involving national minorities. For more information on the HCNM, visit:

ECMI is committed to work for the improvement of the situation of Europe’s minorities through heightened awareness of minority rights and issues among all relevant actors. For more information on ECMI and its activities, visit:



Andrea Young
International Communications Officer
Office: +49 461 14149 12
Mobile: +45 31667065

Angela Jensen
Regional Communications Consultant
Office: +49 461 14149-0
Mobile: +49 151 17217086

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ECMI Caucasus reports on ethnic minority women in Georgia

UN Women Georgia published ECMI Caucasus’ study ENG_UNWreport: Needs Assessment of Ethnic Minority Women in Georgia. The report is available on ECMI Caucasus webpage both in  English  and Georgian.

The study report adopts a cross-comparative approach to human and ethnic minority rights as a leading theme. It includes an evidence-based assessment of the needs and priorities of ethnic minority women conducted from a human rights perspective, but also with regards to specific minority rights.

Women and girls from ten ethnicities residing in compact
settlements of targeted regions took part in the

  • Kakheti – Avar, Azerbaijani, Kist/Chechen, Ossetian, Russian Molokan and Udi;
  • SamtskheJavakheti – Armenian and Russian Dukhobor.

The situation of Roma women was investigated in the largest Roma communities in Kobuleti, Kutaisi and Tbilisi. In addition, the situation of Meskhetian Turk women in Nasakirali and Ianeti was also included in the study.

The scope of the study includes:
• Socio-economic overview, indicating women’s social and economic (in)dependence
• Legal services accessibility and their use in the specific cultural settings of various groups
• Access to and accessibility of public social services at the state and municipal levels
• Access to and accessibility of various elements of infrastructure
• Specific gender-related aspects of family relations such as the occurrence of domestic violence
• Gender equality awareness among women at local levels (regional and municipal) and female political participation and interest in public life
• Preservation and protection of ethnic identity

The aim and objective of the research is to provide a contextualised study of the situation of women who belong to an ethnic minority in Georgia; to identify their needs and priorities; to identify delivery of services by municipalities and the state level, to analyse to what extent these services cover the relevant women’s expectations and needs; to assess perceptions of public services provided; and finally, to draw conclusions and present recommendations.

The study was conducted in the period of October-November 2013 by the European Centre for Minority Issues Caucasus Regional Office in cooperation with UN Women Georgia. The project was supported by  the European Union Delegation to Georgia.

Download the Report

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Forskning hos ECMI


Elena Cuijuclu (33) er i denne her uge på besøg hos ECMI, for at få tips og ideer til hendes ph.d.

Hun kommer fra Moldova og underviser på Comrat State University i„erhvervs politik”. ECMIs senior researchers vil i løbet af ugen holde møder med Elena Cuijuclu og rådgive med hensyn til hendes disputats. ”Jeg er meget glad, at jeg nu har fået muligheden for at komme til ECMI i Flensborg. Allerede de første samtaler har været meget værdifulde og sat mine ideer i et nyt perspektiv”, forklarer Elena Cuijuclu. I afhandlingen beskæftiger hun sig bl.a. med gennemførelsen af mindretalsrettigheder og love på politisk niveau. Desuden interesserer hun sig meget for sprogpolitikken i landet. ”Jeg oplever, at flere og flere unge rejser fra landet og vælger at læse på russiske universiteter. Grunden dertil ligger nok i Moldovas sprogpolitik. Det officielle sprog er rumænsk og mange nationale mindretal taler ikke sproget. De er bange for at dumpe i den tilsvarende eksamen på universitetet og forlader landet. Det er på langt sigt en katastrofe for landet.” Elena Cuijuclu håber på en reformation af sprogpolitikken og en større indsats for sprogindlæring allerede hos de små elever. Elena vil også bruge biblioteket og faglitteratursamlingen under hendes ophold hos ECMI.

Elena Cuijuclu





Fakta: I 1991 erklærede Republikken Moldova sig uafhængig efter opløsningen af Sovjetunionen. Den politiske udvikling af landet er vanskelig, bl.a. på grund af Transnistrien-konflikten og de forskellige nationale og etniske mindretal. Konflikten opstod i forbindelse med Moldovas uafhængighedserklæring. Transnistrien ønskede en løsrivelse af Moldova. Der opstod krig. I 1992 er området blevet en „de-facto-regering“, men er ikke anerkendt som en suveræn stat. Republikken Moldova anerkender ikke løsrivelsen og anser regionen som en del af den autonome region Stînga Nistrului. Konflikten er ikke løst, men begge parter arrangerer sig med status quo. På grund af det lange tilhørsforhold til det Russiske Kejserrige og senere også Sovjetunionen har det russiske sprog stadig en stor betydning for landet. En officiel status har russisk i landsdelene Gagausien (ved siden af gagausisk) og Transnistrien (ved siden af ukrainsk).

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